Great Lakes Speech and Society (GLASS)
This project examines the vowels of English spoken in the Great Lakes region. The vowel system in this geographic area emerged from a series of sound changes known as the Northern Cities Shift. We have been compiling recordings of conversations with longtime residents in order to establish whether the Northern Cities Shift is continuing, stable, reversing, or being replaced with a new vowel system. We’ve also conducted some preliminary research on listeners’ evaluation of Great Lakes speech. Our results to date converge with prior work in Chicago, IL and Syracuse, NY in that we find surprisingly little evidence for the expected Northern Cities Shift vowel configuration in its entirety. Furthermore, at least two vowels — TRAP and LOT — seem to have accumulated some social stigma.
The recordings in the Greater Lansing area are drawn from the Lansing AutoTown oral history archive, the IHELP-MI corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with college students, and short interviews with members of the public that we continue to collect on a rolling basis. We’re comparing findings from Lansing with other ongoing research in:
- Troy, MI (Dr. Mingzhe Zheng, UC Berkeley)
- Metro Detroit, MI (Dr. Eric Acton, Eastern Michigan University)
- Grand Rapids, MI (Dr. Wil Rankinen, Grand Valley State University)
- Rochester, NY (Dr. Maya Ravindranath Abtahian, University of Rochester)
- Other upstate New York (Dr. Aaron Dinkin, University of Toronto; Anja Thiel, University of Bern, Switzerland)
and we plan to increase our collaborative efforts with other scholars currently working on the past and present of the Northern Cities Shift.
Former students: Monica Nesbitt, Mingzhe Zheng, Saya Uehara, Erin Pevan.
Current students: Alexander Mason, Matt Savage, Jared Kaczor, Travis Coppernoll.
Contact: Dr. Suzanne Wagner (Linguistics)
Funding: National Science Foundation BCS–1251437 (Principal investigator: Dr. William Labov, University of Pennsylvania); MSU College of Arts & Letters Research Award 2015-2016; MSU College of Arts and Letters Faculty Summer Fellowship 2016, 2018; MSU Graduate School Dissertation Completion Fellowships to Zheng, Nesbitt.
- in press. Nesbitt, Monica, Suzanne Evans Wagner and Alexander Mason. A tale of two shifts: Movement toward the Low Back Merger Shift in Lansing, Michigan. To appear in Kara Becker (ed), The Low Back Merger Shift: Uniting the Canadian Vowel Shift, the California Vowel Shift, and Short Front Vowel Shifts across North America. Publications of the American Dialect Society 104.
- 2018. Nesbitt, Monica. Economic change and the decline of raised TRAP in Lansing, MI. In Jordan Kodner and Lacey Wade (eds.) University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 24.2: Selected Papers from NWAV 46.
- 2018. Uehara, Sayako and Suzanne Evans Wagner. Progressive outliers in listener perception of sound change. In Jordan Kodner and Lacey Wade (eds.) University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 24.2: Selected Papers from NWAV 46. Article 18, 157-166. https://repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol24/iss2/18
- 2017. Zheng, Mingzhe. You have to learn to adapt: A sociolinguistic study of the “Asian City” of southeast Michigan. Doctoral dissertation. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
- 2016. Wagner, Suzanne E., Alexander Mason, Monica Nesbitt, Erin Pevan & Matt Savage. Reversal and re-organization of the Northern Cities Shift in Michigan. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics: Selected Papers from NWAV 44.
- 2019. Wagner, Suzanne Evans. Michiganders think they sound normal: Is that turning out to be true? Invited talk at Northwestern University, May 10.
- 2018. Nesbitt, Monica. Loss of an urban-rural distinction in Michigan. Paper presented at Urban Language Conference, Graz, Austria.
- 2018. Savage, Matt and Alexander Mason. Style and attitude: The social evaluation of the BET vowel. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation 47, New York University.
- 2018. Mason, Alexander. It’s a TRAP! The trigger for the Elsewhere Shift in Lansing, Michigan. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation 47, New York University.
- 2018. Nesbitt, Monica. Changing accents changes syllables: The effect of diachronic phonetic change in syllabic representations in the Inland North. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation 47, New York University.
- 2018. Nesbitt, Monica. Loss of the local dialect in Lansing, MI. Poster presented at PhonFest, Indiana University-Bloomington, May 11.
- 2018. Uehara, Sayako and Suzanne Evans Wagner. Perception of sound change in progress. Poster presented at Cognitive Science of Communication Symposium, Michigan State University, April 20.
- 2018. Uehara, Sayako and Suzanne Evans Wagner. Outlier perception accuracy for a vowel undergoing change in progress. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America annual meeting, Salt Lake City, January 4-7.
- 2017. Wagner, Suzanne Evans. The new normal: Supralocal sound change in Michigan. Invited talk at Georgetown Speaker Series in Linguistics, Georgetown University, December 8.
- 2017. Zheng, Mingzhe. Ethnic identity construction: The interlocutor effect on the TOOTH vowel in Chinese American English. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation 46, Madison, Wisconsin, November 2-5.
- 2017. Uehara, Sayako & Suzanne Evans Wagner. Progressive outliers in listener perception of sound change. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation 46, Madison, Wisconsin, November 2-5.
- 2017. Nesbitt, Monica. A Rust Belt feature? Economic change and the decline of raised TRAP in Lansing, MI. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation 46, Madison, Wisconsin, November 2-5.
- 2016. Nesbitt, Monica & Alexander Mason. Evidence of the Elsewhere Shift in the Inland North. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) 45, Vancouver, Canada, November 3-6.
- 2016. Savage, Matt, Alexander Mason, Monica Nesbitt, Erin Pevan & Suzanne Evans Wagner. Ignorant and annoying: Inland Northerners’ attitudes towards Northern Cities Shift short-o. Poster presented at American Dialect Society Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.
- 2016. Wagner, Suzanne E. & Robin Dodsworth. Conceptualizing and coding social class in North America. NSF satellite workshop Preparing your Corpus for Archival Storage: Coding for Socioeconomics, Education, Language Choice, and Stance (co-organizers Malcah Yaeger-Dror and Christopher Cieri). Linguistic Society of American Annual Meeting, Washington DC.
East Asian Sociolinguistics
The Linguistics program counts expert phonologist of Chinese, Dr Yen-Hwei Lin, among its faculty, along with Dr. Karthik Durvasula, a phonologist with years of experience in fieldwork and experimental research. As a result, many of the Linguistics graduate students are pursuing projects on both phonetics/phonology and sociolinguistics of Chinese and Chinese-American speech. Some current and recent examples include:
- Chenchen Xu’s perceptual dialect mapping of China, presented at NWAV 44, and her experimental research on attitudes to ‘Taiwanese’ syllable contraction.
- Xu, Chenchen and Lingfang Mao. 2017. The sociolinguistic meanings of syllable contraction in Chinese: A study using perceptual maps. Asia-Pacific Language Variation 3(2): 160-169. https://doi.org/10.1075/aplv.16004.xu
- Xiaomei Wang‘s work on change in the tone system in Tianjin dialect, for which she has conducted more than 60 sociolinguistic interviews with a socially stratified sample of residents of the city.
- Wang, Xiaomei and Suzanne Evans Wagner. fc. Local identity and standardization: Evidence from Tianjin Chinese tone sandhi. To appear in Ruaridh Purse and Yosiane White (eds), University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 26.2: Selected papers from NWAV 48.
- Mingzhe Zheng‘s analysis of Chinese-Americans’ participation in the Northern Cities Shift, presented at NWAV 44 and NWAV 46.
- Qian Luo‘s study of the social distribution of tone merger in Guangzhou Cantonese.
Grammatical variation from adolescence to young adulthood
This is a joint project with Dr. Sali Tagliamonte of the University of Toronto. Varieties of English around the world have seen a huge rise in the use of be like as a quotative verb (e.g. He was like, “Are you serious?”) and new intensifiers such as so and super (e.g. I was so mad; She was super serious). But does use of these new forms increase over individual lifespans as well? We’re looking at speech from young women recorded in high school, college and their mid-twenties to see what happens.
- Wagner, Suzanne Evans and Sali A. Tagliamonte. 2017. What makes a panel study work? Researcher and participant in real time. In Suzanne Evans Wagner & Isabelle Buchstaller (eds.), Panel Studies of Variation and Change. Routledge. 213-232.
- Wagner, Suzanne Evans and Sali A. Tagliamonte. 2016. Vernacular stability: Comparative evidence from two lifespan studies. Paper presented at NWAV 45, Vancouver, Canada, November 3-6.